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Royal & Private Tombs

Ancient Egypt had created a monumental architecture. On its grounds first colossal monuments – royal tombs - were discovered. The tombs – belonging either to kings or to private individuals were becoming more and more sophisticated until they achieved their final form. Two elements in the temple were obligatory: the funerary chamber and the cult-place. During the Old and Middle Kingdom they were placed in conjunction with each other making a main part of the funerary complex. Other parts of a temple are: a monumental mastaba with vertical shaft leading down the chamber, pyramid with numerous passages and chambers covered with pile of stones. These were supposed to protect the passages and sacral chambers against undesirable visitors. An original invention of the New Kingdom was a separation probably resulting from a concern for keeping a burial place in a strict secret. This was to prevent a burial place more effectively from profanation. Royal tombs, later also tombs of high officials had been hewn in bed-rocks of valleys on the west of Thebes. Funerary temples belonging to them had been erected a few hundred meters farther, beyond the mountain escarpment. Few hundred officials were buried in numerous necropolises in Western Thebes. Most of them date to the New Kingdom.

Valley of the Kings at Western Thebes     

Reconstruction of tombs, their design and dimensions provide a good material for studies of the development of Egyptian sacral architecture. Some of them are represented schematically below.

Necropolis Umm el Qaab at Abydos ( Archaic Period )

   tomb of Iry-Hor ( 0 Dynasty )
   tomb of Ka ( 0 Dynasty )
   tomb of Narmer ( I Dynasty )
   tomb of Aha ( I Dynasty )
   tomb of Djer ( I Dynasty )
   tomb of Djet ( I Dynasty )
   tomb of Merytneith ( I Dynasty )
   tomb of Den ( I Dynasty )
   tomb of Adjib ( I Dynasty )
   tomb of Semerkhet ( I Dynasty )
   tomb of Qa'a ( I Dynasty )
   tomb of Peribsen ( II Dynasty )
   tomb of Khasekhemwi ( II Dynasty )

Complete list of all pyramids ( III...XVIII Dynasty )

Necropolises at Saqqara
 

Some necropolises of Old & Middle Kingdom

                 gallery tomb of Hotepsechemui at Saqqara ( II Dynasty )
                 pyramid complex of Djoser at Saqqara ( III Dynasty )
                 pyramid complex of Sekhemkhet at Saqqara ( III Dynasty )
                 pyramid of Huni-Snofru at Meidum  ( III-IV Dynasty )
                 pyramids of Snofru at Dahshur ( IV Dynasty )
                 pyramid of Khufu at Giza ( IV dynastia )
                 pyramid complex of Shepseskaf at Saqqara ( IV Dynasty )
                 pyramid complex of Weserkaf at Saqqara ( V Dynasty )
                 pyramid complex of Djedkare Isesi at Saqqara ( V Dynasty )
                 pyramid complex of Unas at Saqqara ( V Dynasty )
                 pyramid complex of Teti at Saqqara (VI Dynasty )
                 pyramid complex of Pepi I at Saqqara ( VI Dynasty )
                 pyramid of Nemtimsaf I at Saqqara ( VI Dynasty )
                 pyramid complex of Pepi II at Saqqara ( VI Dynasty )
                 pyramid of Kakare Ibi at Saqqara ( VIII Dynasty )

                 pyramid of Senweseret I at el-Lisht ( XII Dynasty )
                 pyramid of Senweseret II at el-Lahun ( XII Dynasty )
                 pyramid of Senweseret III in Dahshur ( XII Dynasty )
                 pyramid of Amenemhat  III in Dahshur ( XII Dynasty )
                 pyramid of Amenemhat  III in Hawara ( XII Dynasty )


Hypogeum in Kings Valley
 ( New Kingdom )

                 KV1 - tomb of Ramesses VII ( XX Dynasty )
                 KV2 - tomb of Ramesses IV ( XX Dynasty )
                 KV3 - tomb of unknown son of Ramesses III ( XX Dynasty )
                 KV4 - tomb of Ramesses XI ( XX Dynasty )
                 KV5 - tomb of Ramesses II sons ( XIX Dynasty )
                 KV6 - tomb of Ramesses IX ( XX Dynasty )
                 KV7 - tomb of Ramesses II ( XIX Dynasty )
                 KV8 - tomb of Merenptah ( XIX Dynasty )
                 KV9 - tomb of Ramesses V and Ramesses VI ( XX Dynasty )
                 KV10 - tomb of Amenemose ( XIX Dynasty )
                 KV11 - tomb of Ramesses III ( XX Dynasty )
                 KV14 - tomb of Tauseret & Setnakht ( XIX Dynasty )
                 KV15 - tomb of Seti II ( XIX Dynasty )
                 KV16 - tomb of Ramesses I ( XIX Dynasty )
                 KV17 - tomb of Seti I ( XIX Dynasty )
                 KV18 - tomb of Ramesses X ( XX Dynasty )
                 KV19 - tomb of Montuherkhopshef (XIX Dynasty)
                 KV20 - tomb of Tuthmosis I and Hatshepshut ( XVIII Dynasty )
                 KV34 - tomb of Tuthmosis III ( XVIII Dynasty )
                 KV35 - tomb of Amenhotep II ( XVIII Dynasty )
                 KV38 - tomb of Tuthmosis I ( XVIII Dynasty )
                 KV39 - tomb of Amenhotep I ( XVIII Dynasty )
                 KV43 - tomb of Tuthmosis IV ( XVIII Dynasty )
                 KV46 - tomb of Yuya and Tjuyu ( XVIII Dynasty )
                 KV47 - tomb of Siptah ( XIX Dynasty )
                 KV55 - "amarna cache" ( XVIII Dynasty )
                 KV57 - tomb of Horemheb ( XVIII Dynasty )
                 KV62 - tomb of Tutankhamon ( XVIII Dynasty )


Hypogeum in Queens Valley
                 QV55 - tomb of Amonherkhopshef ( XX Dynasty )
                 QV66 - tomb of Nefertari ( XIX Dynasty )

Hypogeum in Valley of the Apes ( West Valley )
                 WV22 - tomb of Amenhotepa III ( XVIII Dynasty )
                 WV23 - tomb of Ai II ( XVIII Dynasty )

Theban necropolises:
                 Deir el-Medina
                 Deir el-Bahari
                 el-Asasif
                 el-Khokha
                 Dra Abu el-Naga
                 el-Qurna
                 Qurnet Murrai


Caches and other tombs in West Thebes
                 
DB320 - cache in Deir el-Bahari
                  KV35 - tomb of Amenhotep II in Kings Valley
                  KV55 - amarna cache

                  AN B - tomb of Amenhotep I at Dra Abu el-Naga

Akhetaten ( Tell el-Amarna )
                 TA26 - tomb of Akhenaten ( XVIII Dynasty )
             Tombs of the nobles Amarna Period ( XVIII Dynasty )

King's Tomb No 3 at Tanis ( XXI-XXII Dynasty )
 

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