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Akhetaten ( Tell el-Amarna )

City founded by the pharaoh Akhenaten. Abruptly abandoned following Akhenaten's death, after an occupation of only about 25 to 30 years, el-Amarna is the best preserved example of an Egyptian settlement of the New Kingdom, including temples, palaces and large areas of mud brick private housing. There are also two groups of rock-tombs (largely unfinished) at the northern and southern ends of the semicircular bay of cliffs to the east of the city, such as the priest Panehsy and chief of police Mahu. The plundered and vandalized remains of the royal tomb of Akhenaten and his family, several kilometers to the east of the cliffs, were rediscovered in the late 1880's. Much of the western side of the city, including houses, harbors and the main palace of the king, has now vanished under the modern civilization. However, a large number of structures have been preserved in the desert to the east, along with the wells, grain-silos, bakeries and refuse dumps that comprise the basic framework of production and consumption throughout the community.
 


 

Northern Tombs:

1 - Huy -
Superintendent of the Harem; Overseer of the Double Treasury of the Great Royal Wife; Steward of Queen Tiji

2 - Meryre(2) - Royal Scribe; Overseer of the Double Treasury; Overseer of the Harem of the Great Royal Wife Nefertiti

3 - Ahmose - Royal Scribe; Fan Bearer on the right of the King; Steward of the Akhenaten's House; Overseer of the Court of Justice

4 - Meryre(1) - High Priest of the Aten; Great of Seers of the Aten in the House of Re; Fan Bearer on the Right of the King

5 - Pentu - Royal Scribe; Chief Physician of the King; First Servant of the Aten in the Mansion of the Aten in Akhetaten; The Two Legs of the Lord of the Two Lands; Chamberlain; One Who Approaches the Person of the King; Noble of the First Rank Among the Sole Companions; Chef of Chiefs

6 - Panehesy - Chief Servant of the Aten in the House of the Aten in Akhetaten; Second Prophet of the Lord of the Two Lands Neferkheperure-Waenre; Overseer of the Double Granary of the Aten in Akhetaten; Overseer of Cattle of the Aten in the House of the Aten

Southern Tombs:

7 - Parennefer -
Royal Craftsman, Pure of Hands; Overseer of All the Craftsmen of the King; Overseer of All the Works of the King in the House of the Aten; Foremost of Commoners; One Who Accompanies the Lord of the Two Lands in Every Place; Overseer of Prophets of All the Gods

8 - Tutu - Chamberlain; First Servant of Neferkheperure-Waenre in the House of the Aten in Aketaten; First Servant of Akhenaten in wia-Barque; Overseer of All Craftsmen of the Lord of the Two Lands; Overseer of All Works of His Majesty; Overseer of Silver and Gold of the Lord of the Two Lands; Overseer of the Treasure of the Aten in Akhetaten; Chief Spokesman of the Entire Land

9 - Mahu - Chief of the Police of Akhenaten

10 - Ipy - Royal Scribe; High Steward; Overseer of the Great Harem of Pharaoh; Steward of Memphis

11 - Ramose - Royal Scribe; Steward of Nebmaatre; Scribe of Recruits; General of the Lord of the Two Lands

12 - Nakhtpaaten - Vizier

13 - Neferkhepruhersekheper - Mayor of Akhenaten

14 - May - General of the Lord of the Two Lands; Overseer of the House of Pacifying the Aten; Steward of Waenre in Heliopolis; Overseer of All Works of the King; Royal Scribe; Scribe of Recruits; Overseer of Cattle of the Temple of Re in Heliopolis; Fan Bearer on the Right of the King

15 - Suty - Standard Bearer of the Bodyguard of Neferkheperure-Waenre

16..18 - unknown

19 - Sutau - Overseer of the Double Treasury of the Lord of the Two Lands

20..22 - unknown

23 - Any - Royal Scribe; Scribe of Offerings of the Lord of the Two Lands; Scribe of Offerings of the Aten; Steward of the House of Aakheperure (Amenhotep II)

24 - Paatenemheb - Royal Scribe; General of the Lord of the Two Lands; Overseer of Works in Akhetaten

25 - Ay - God's Father; Fan Bearer of the Right of the King; Overseer of All the Horses of the Lord of the Two Lands; Royal Scribe; Chief of Archers

26 - The Royal Tomb

27 - Unfinished tomb possibly meant for a member of the royal family.

28 - This tomb resembles the tombs used for the Apis Bulls in Saqqara, and the remains of a bull or oxen were at the dumpsite for materials from tomb 28. At first these remains were thought to be part of an offering, but it's possible they were the actual remains of the sacred bull.

29 - Princess Neferneferure (?).  A fragment of an amphora was found with text identifying the object as belonging to the inner (burial) chamber of Neferneferure. The burial of the princess in this separate tomb may imply that she died some time after her father Akhenaten.

30 - Small unknown tomb, likely meant for a private individual.
 

Aerial view from 1932 of the central part of the city

 

A staircase led to a roof from the private royal quarters of the Northern Palace, probably Nefertiti's own domain

Copyright 2000-2013 Dariusz Sitek, Czestochowa - Chicago - Ann Arbor