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Until now the absolute chronology of Egypt has been based solely on historical sources. Numerous architectural monuments and historical inscriptions provide materials for studies on chronology of pharaohs, the significant role of which by reconstructing the history of this most interesting of all civilizations can not be overestimated.
fragment of Second Abydos TableManetho’s Chronicle or royal lists engraved in stone plates and walls of tombs and temples are a group of documents of, to large extent, questionable value due to their incomplete condition as they are now. They include only some names of kings and no dates. For all that however they allow for confirmation of sequence of kings, especially those omitted from Palermo Stone and Turin Canon due to their damage.
Royal List of Karnak engraved in a vestibule wall of the temple of Tuthmosis III (dynasty XVIII) recently in the Museum of Louvre, includes 61 names of rulers of dynasties XI, XIII and XVII. Unfortunately, due to the fact that the royal names are not presented in historical order, it is of minor help for establishing the Egyptian chronology. Table of Abydos is still on the walls of the temple of Seti I at Abydos and has a list of names of selected kings, running from Menes down to beginnings of the dynasty XIX. Table of Sakkara is a king list inscribed in Saqqara tomb of overseer of works of Ramesses II (dynasty XIX). It has names of Ramesses II predecessors, running from king Anedjib of dynasty I.  An important document for our comprehension of royal chronology is so called Memphite genealogy of prophets, giving in 27 cases the name of actually ruling king. Also biographies of high officials, proudly presented in walls of their tombs, became a source of numerous and significant data.
Conventional chronology is based on two astronomically confident dates that are associated with rise of Sothis, the event noted down by ancient Egyptian documents dated to times of XII and XVIII dynasties. Periods of common rule of two rulers – the pharaoh and his successor, called co-regency are a source of arguments between scholars and make difficulties in precise dating. In periods of co-regency years of rule of each ruler are counted together. The most significant for Egyptian chronology co-regencies were in times of dynasties XII and XVIII.
So called biblical sources are worth mentioning at this point as they are often referred to by those creating proud history of Israel based on one of the most wonderful civilizations ever existed on this globe – the Egyptian civilization.  Bible gives a lot of information, which might be immensely significant but for that it has nothing to do with historical facts.

                         Selected bibliography and sources

C.Aldred "Akhenaten. King of Egypt", New York 1988
T.Andrzejewski "Ksiega Umarlych piastunki Kai", Warsaw 1951
T.Andrzejewski "Opowiadania Egipskie", Warsaw 1958
T.Andrzejewski "Rylcem i trzcina", Warsaw 1959
T.Andrzejewski "Dusze boga Re", Warsaw 1967
D.Arnold "The Encyclopedia of Ancient Egyptian Architecture", New York 2003
J.Baines, J.Malek "Egipt (Wielkie Kultury Swiata)", Warsaw 1996
J.Baines, J.Malek "Cultural Atlas of Ancient Egypt", Oxford - New York 2000
J. von Beckerath "Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Agypten", Munchen-Berlin 1965
J. von Beckerath "Handbuch der agyptischen Konigsnamen", Munchen-Berlin 1984, ver 2 1999
J. von Beckerath "Chronologic des pharaonischen Agypten", Mainz 1997
P.Bielinski "Starozytny Bliski Wschod", Warsaw 1985
B.Brier "Great Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt", Chantilly. 2004
B.Brier " The History of Ancient Egypt", Chantilly 1999
B.Brier "Mumie egipskie", Warsaw 2000
B.Brier "The Encyclopedia of Mummies", New York 1998
B.Brier "Egyptian Mummies.Unraveling the Secrets of an Ancient Art", New York 1994
H.Carter, A.C. Mace "Tut-ench-Amun", Leipzig 1924
H.Carter, A.C. Mace "Odkrycie grobowca Tutanchamona", Warsaw 1997
J.H.Breasted "A History of Egypt", Wien 1936 (1905)
J.Cerny "Religia starozytnych Egipcjan", Warsaw 1972
K.M.Cialowicz "Symbolika przedstawien wladcy egipskiego w okresie predynastycznym", Krakow 1993
K.M.Cialowicz "Poczatki cywilizacji egipskiej", Warsaw-Krakow 1999
"Cleopatra of Egypt. From History to Myth", British Museum - Princeton University 2001
F.Daumas "Od Narmera do Kleopatry", Warsaw 1973
R.David, R.Archibold "Conversations with Mummies. New Light on the Lives of Ancient Egyptians", New York 2000
A.Dembska "Kultura Starozytnego Egiptu. Slownik", Warsaw 1995
Ch.Desroches-Noblecourt "Tutanchamon. zycie, smierc, odrodzenie", Warsaw 1980
A.Dodson "Monarchs of the Nile", Cairo - New York 2000
E.Drioton "Egipt faraonow", Warsaw 1970
I.E.S.Edwards "Piramidy Egiptu", Warsaw 1995
"Egyptian Antiquities in the Hermitage", Leningrad 1974
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W.B.Emery "Egypt in Nubia", London 1965
A.Fakhry "Piramidy", Warsaw 1965
W.Forman & S.Quirke "Hieroglyphs and the Afterlife in Ancient Egypt", Oklahoma 1996
F.D.Friedman "Gifts of the Nile. Ancient Egyptian Faiance", New York 1998
A.Gardiner "Egypt of the Pharaohs", Oxford 1964
Z.M.Goneim "The Lost Pyramid", New York 1956
N.Grimal "A History of Ancient Egypt", New York 1997
J.E. Harris & K.R. Weeks "X-Raying the Pharaohs", New York 1973
W.Helck "Geschichte des Alten Agypten", 1968
Herodot "Dzieje", Warsaw 1959
ChHobson "The World of the Pharaohs. A Complete Guide to Ancient Egypt", New York 1990
E.Hornung "Jeden czy wielu? Koncepcja Boga w starozytnym Egipcie", Warsaw 1991
KJackson, J.Stamp "Building the Great Pyramid", Toronto 2003
P.Johnson "The Civilisation of Ancient Egypt", New York 1999
K.Kitchen "The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt", Warminster 1986
R.Krauss "Sothis und Mondaten. Hilderscheimer Aegyptologische Beitrage", Hildeshein 1985
L.Krzyzaniak "Egipt przed piramidami", Warsaw 1980
K.Lange, M. Hirmer "Egypt. Architecture, Sculpture, Painting in the Thousand Years", New York 1968
M.Lehner  "The Complete Pyramids", London 1997
Lichtheim M. "Ancient Egyptian Literature", vol.1-3, University of California Press 1975
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J.Lipinska, M. Marciniak "Mitologia starozytnego Egiptu", Warsaw 1977
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J.Lipinska "Sztuka egipska", Warsaw 1982
Ch.El Mahdy "Tutankhamen. The Life and Death of the Boy-King", New York 2000
J.Malek "Egyptian Art", London 1999
J.Malek "Egypt. 4000 Years of Art", New York 2003
B.Manley "Historical Atlas of Ancient Egypt", London 1996
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K.Michalowski "Kanon w architekturze egipskiej", Warsaw 1955
K.Michalowski "Karnak", Warsaw 1972
K.Michalowski "Teby", Warsaw 1972
K.Michalowski "Piramidy i mastaby", Warsaw 1972
K.Michalowski "Luksor", Warsaw 1972
K.Michalowski "Od Edfu do Faras. Polskie odkrycia archeologii srodziemnomorskiej", Warsaw 1974
K.Michalowski "Nie tylko piramidy...", Warsaw 1975
P.Montet "Zycie codzienne w Egipcie w epoce Ramessydow", Warsaw 1964
P.Montet "Egipt i Biblia", Warsaw 1968
W.J.Murnane "The History of Ancient Egypt", New York 1995
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S.Morenz "Bog i czlowiek w starozytnym Egipcie", Warsaw 1972
W.M.F.Petrie "Ten years digging in Egypt", Edinbourgh 1892
W.M.F.Petrie "Illahun, Kahun and Gurob. 1889-90",  London 1891
Plutarch "De Iside et Osiride"
M.Porebski "Dzieje sztuki w zarysie", Warsaw1976
"Pharaohs of the Sun. Akhenaten, Nefertiti, Tutankhamen", Boston - New York 1999
G.Rachet "Slownik cywilizacji egipskiej", Katowice 1996
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N.Reeves, R.H.Wilkinson "The Complete Valley of the Kings", London 1996
M.Rice "Who Is Who in Ancient Egypt", London-New York 1999
D.M.Rohl "Faraonowie i krolowie", Warsaw 1996
E.R.Russmann "Eternal Egypt. Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum",  Berkeley & Los Angeles 2001
K.S.B.Ryholt "The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 BC", 1997
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T.Schneider "Leksykon faraonow", Warsaw-Krakow 2001
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J.Sliwa "Skarabeusze egipskie", Wroclaw, Warsaw, Krakow 2003
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Ph.Vandenberg "Nefretete", Warsaw 1982
M.Verner "The Pyramids", New York 2001
M.Verner "Abusir", Cairo 2002
P.Vernus & J.Yoyotte "The Book of the Pharaohs", New York 2003
B.Watterson "Women in Ancient Egypt", New York 1091
K.R.Weeks "The Lost Tomb", New York 1998
K.R.Weeks "Valley of the Kings", New York -  Turin 2001
D.Wildung "Egypt. From Prehistory to the Romans", Koe
ln - New York1997
R.H.Wilkinson "The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt", New York 2000
J.Wolski "Historia Powszechna. Starozytnosc", Warsaw 1971
Ch.Ziegler "The Pharaohs", New York 2002

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