Make your own free website on Tripod.com

to I Dynasty

 IInd Dynasty 2860 - 2727
( This )

to III Dynasty

Manetho tells us that the IInd Dynasty consisted of nine kings, ruling for 302 years, but it is difficult to reconcile his statement with the surviving archeological and written evidence. By present state of knowledge we are unable to establish precise order of kings of this dynasty. Two rulers, Hotepsekhemwi and Khasekhemui, are the best known personages of this period. Peribsen-Sekhemib was probably the first religious reformer in the history. Generally times of the Dynasty II are poorly known to us and many scholars still base their opinions more upon suppositions and presumptions than historical facts. It is assumed that between king Hotepsekhemwi, generally believed to be the first ruler of this dynasty, and the last pharaoh of preceeding dynasty, should be placed ephemeral rulers Ba and Sneferka. This is slightly controversial as some scholars (N. Swelim) identify the king Ba with ruler of dynasty III – the king Sekhemkhet.
To view the transcription of kings titulary properly, please download and install transliteration font.

1

2860 - 2837
2850- ? (Krauss)
2850-2820 (Redford)
2828-2800 (von Beckerath)
2793-2765 (Malek)

Hotepsekhemwi

  • Hr Htp-sxm.wi
  • Htp-nbti
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • b(w)DA(?)w (Aby.9) , bAw-nTr (Sak.3) , bAw-[nTr] (Tur.2.19) , Boethos (Man)
(Horus Name)

Hr Htp-sxm.wi
Horus Hotepsekhemwi
(The Two Powers Are Satisfied)

(Nebti Name)

Htp nb.ti
Hotep Nebti
(The Two Ladies Are Satisfied)

Abydos Table
(Nomen)

bDAw
Bedjau

Saqqara Table
(Nomen)

bA.w nTr
Bau-netjer
(The Powers Of The God)

Turin Canon
(Nomen)

bA.w nTr
Bau-netjer
(The Powers Of The God)

(Nomen)

bDAtAw
Bedjatau

His accession to the rule might have been preceded with some internal disorders increasing after death of Qa’a, the last ruler of dynasty I. According to Kaplony the dynasty II might have originated from the eastern Delta and there are several lines of evidence supporting this view. There is no information concerning duration of Hotepsekhemwi rule in the Palermo Stone. The Turin Canon mentions 95 years. It is believed that Hotepsekhemwi drawn aside of rule in a plot organized by his own brother. W. Helck suggests that Bedjau was a ruler of dynasty I, as confirmed by Table of Abydos and so called little palette of Giza an thus he would be identified with Manethonian Boethos and would have a reign of 39 years. Burial place -  gallery-tomb B, discovered in southern Saqqara beneath a ramp leading to the funerary chamber of Unas.

2

2837 - 2827
2820-2790 (Redford)
2800-2785 (von Beckerath)
2765-2750 (Malek)

 

Reneb ( Nebre )

  • Hr nb-ra
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • nbw-nfr , kA-kAw (Aby.10,  Sak.4) , [kA]-kA[w] (Tur.2.20) , Kajechos (Man)
(Horus Name)

Hr nb-ra
Horus
Reneb
(Re Is The Lord)

Turin Canon
(Nomen)

kA kA[.w]
Kakau

Abydos Table
(Nomen)
(Nomen)

King, whose name is known to us thanks numerous sealings found at Saqqara and stela from Abydos. Mentioned also in royal lists of Abydos and Saqqara, as well as the Turin Canon and by Manetho. There are few hypotheses (P.Munro) suggesting that the gallery-tomb B in southern Saqqara belonged just to Nebre instead to Hotepsekhemwi.

Granite stelae of Nebre. Metropolitan Museum - New York

Granite stelae of Nebre. Metropolitan Museum - New York

3

2827 - 2783
2790-2754 (Redford)
2785-2742 (von Beckerath)
2750-2707 (Malek)

 

Ninetjer

  • Hr ni-nTr
  • ni-nTr-nbti
  • rn-nbw
  • ... ...
  • bA-n-nTr (Aby.11) , bA-nTrw (Sak.5) , [bA]-n-nTr (Tur.2.21) , Binothris (Man)
(Horus Name)

Hr n(i)-nTr
Horus
Ninetjer
(The One Of The God [Godlike])

(Nebti Name)

nb.ti n(i)-nTr
Nebti
Ninetjer
(The One Of The God [Godlike])

nb.ti...
Nebti ?

(Golden Horus Name)

rn-nbw
Ren Nebu

Abydos Table
(Nomen)

bA-n-nTr
Banetjer
(The Ram Of The God)

Saqqara Table
(Nomen)

bA-nTrw
Banetjeru
(The Divine Ba)

Turin Canon
(Nomen)

bA-n-nTr
Banetjer

The Turin Canon mentions 95 years of rule. The Palermo Stone describes numerous religious ceremonies taking place under the reign of Ninetjer.

4

2783 - 2780
2754-2734 (Redford)
2742-2735 (von Beckerath)
2707-2700 (Malek)

 

Weneg

  • ... ...
  • wng-nbti
  • ... ...
  • wng
  • wAD-ns (Aby.12, Sak.6) , Thlas (Man)
(Horus Name)

Hr wng
Hor Weneg

(Nebti Name)

nb.ti xt
Nebti Khet
(Nebti Tree)

Abydos Table
(Nomen)

wAD-ns
Wadjnes

Saqqara Table
(Nomen)

Ruler usually identified with his successor Sendj. However the fact that both these names are found in the Table of Abydos suggests something adverse. Generally the period after Ninetjer rule is one of less known in the whole history of Egypt. Thlas is a form of name passed by Manetho and derived probably from wAD-ns in Tables of Abydos and Saqqara

5

2780 - 2770
2735-2724 (von Beckerath)
2700-2690 (Malek)

Senedj

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • snd , sndi (Aby.13) , snD (Sak.7, Tur.2.23) , niswt snd , Sethenes (Man)
Abydos Table
(Nomen)

sndi
Senedi

Turin Canon
Saqqara Table
(Nomen)

snD
Senedj

(Nomen)

snd
Senedj

(Nomen)

nsw snd
Nesu
Sened

Turin Canon gives 54 years of rule. On the list of kings of this dynasty he is apt to be inserted in various places. Thus, he has been identified with either Peribsen or Uneg or Sekhemib still with assumption that Peribsen and Sekhemib were two different persons. In W. Helck opinion Sendi lived and ruled immediately after Peribsen, while N. Grimal suggests they both were contemporaries. Thus, it is very likely that Egypt was split at that times although in general opinion this had happened after Sendi’s death.

b

2770 - 2762
2690-2682 (Malek)

Sneferka

  • Hr snfr-kA
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...

 Hr snfr-kA
 
Horus Sneferka

Possibly one of the rulers of this, or as P. Kaplony suggests, previous dynasty.

c

 2724-2719 (von Beckerath)

Neferkare (Aaka)

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • nfr-kA-ra (Sak.8) , nfr-kA(-ra) , aAkA (Tur.2.24) , Nefercheres (Man)
The ruler placed by some scholars somewhere between Peribsen and Khasekhemwi. No artifacts dated to Neferkare’s time survived so that precise localization of the king remains impossible. Alan Gardiner is sure that the scribe on Turin Papyrus has written Aaka.
Saqqara Table
(Nomen)

nfr-kA-ra
Neferkare (Beautiful Soul Of Re)

(Nomen)  

nfr-kA(-ra)
Neferka[re]
(Beautiful Soul [Of Re])

d

2762 - 2754
2719-2711 (von Beckerath)
2709-2701 (Dodson)
2682-2674 (Malek)

 

Neferkasokar

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • nfr-kA-skr (Saq Tur) , Sesochris (Man)
Saqqara Table
(Nomen)

nfr-kA-skr
Neferkasokar (Beautiful Soul Of Sokar)

Turin Canon
(Nomen)
 

nfr-kA-skr
Neferkasokar
(Beautiful Soul Of Sokar)

The ruler inserted by some scholars somewhere between Peribsen and Khasekhemwi. Precise localization of this king remains impossible due to lack of any artifacts dated back to his times. A cylindrical seal with this ruler’s name presumably does not originate from his times. In the Late Period this king enjoyed great popularity.

e

 2711-2709 (von Beckerath)

'Hudjefa' (a)

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • H(w)-DfA (Tur.3.2) , Hw-DfA (Sak.10)
Turin Canon

H(w)-DfA
Hudjefa

Saqqara Table

Hw-DfA
Hudjefa

Some scholars regard this ruler a one before last of this dynasty and predecessor of Khasekhemwi. Te style of inscribing his name, found in Table of Saqqara and Royal Canon of Turin is an incorrect interpretation based on the fact that primary royal name is unreadable. The Turin Papyrus mentions 1 year, 8 month and 4 days of rule

6

2780 - 2754
2734-2714 (Redford)
2700-2674 (Malek)

Sekhemib - Peribsen

  • Hr sxm-ib , sxm-ib pri-n-mAat
  • sxm-ib-nbti pri-n-mAat
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...

  • (stX) pri-ib.sn
  • pri-ib.sn , / nbti-pri-ib.sn /
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
(Horus Name)

Hr sxm-ib
Horus
Sechemib
(Powerfull Of Heart)

Hr sxm-ib pr-n-mAa.t
Horus
Sechemib Perenmaat (Powerful In Heart, Who Has Come Forth From Maat)

(Nebti Name)

nb.ti-sxm-ib pr-n-mAa.t
Nebti
Sechemib Perenmaat (Powerful In Heart, Who Has Come Forth From Maat)

(Seth Name)  

stX-pr-ib.sn
Seth
Peribsen
(Seth, Hope Of All Hearts)

(Nebti Name)

nb.ti-pr ib.sn
Nebti
Peribsen (Hope Of All Hearts)

 

pr-ib.sn
Peribsen
(One Who Has Come Forth From Them)

The fact that he dropped his Horus name in favor of a Seth name is so weighty that it made historians create a lot of hypotheses. Thus it is assumed that Peribsen might have been usurper or that under his rule a religious revolution took place.  Unfortunately there are no artifacts found which might clarify those events. It is believed that Sekhemib Pereenmaat and Peribsen were two different kings. Yet some scholars try to identify Sekhemib with Sendi. Simplifying slightly this immensely intricate problem one can assume that Sekhemib was either Peribsen’s successor, as indicated by W. Helck and N. Grimal or they were one person who, for unknown reasons (maybe just religious) changed his Horus name while ruling (E. Drioton, J. Vandier, W. Kaiser). One thing is almost certain. The power had been decentralized and simultaneous rules took place. Another split into North and South possible. Burial place – tomb P in the Umm el-Qaab necropolis at Abydos, equipped at the moment of its discovery still with copper and stone pottery. No tomb of this ruler has been found at Saqqara.

pieczęć cylindryczna z imieniem Peribsena

Stela Peribsena

Cylindrical seal of Peribsen.

Stelae with name of Peribsen.

a

 

Ba

  • Hr bA (?) , Hr sA (?)
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...

 Hr bA (?)
 
Horus Ba

 ,

 Hr sA (?)
 
Horus Sa

Possibly one of the rulers of this dynasty, but also possible that he belonged to the previous one or beginning of the dynasty III. His name was inscribed in two different forms and might have belonged to two different kings. Some scholars (N. Swelim) identify him with king Teti (Djoser-Teti) of dynasty III.

7

2754 - 2727
c.2740 (Krauss)
2714-2687 (Redford)
2709-2682 (von Beckerath)
2690-2663 (Dodson)
2674-2647
(Malek)

 

Khasekhemwi ( Khasekhem )

  • Hr[-stX] xai-sxm , xai-sxm wi , xai-sxm wi Htp-nTrwi-im.f
  • xai-sxm.wi-nbti Htp-nTrwi-im.f , xai-sxm wi-nbti nbw-Ht.s(n)
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • DADAy (Aby.14) , bby (Sak.11) , bbti (Tur.3.3)  , Kheneres (Man)
(Horus Name)

Hr xa-sxm
Horus
Khasekhem (The Powerful One Has Risen)

Hr xa-sxm.wi
Horus
-Seth Khasekhemwi

(Seth & Horus Name)

Hr stH xa-sxm.wi nb.wi Htp im=f
Horus-Seth
Khasekhemwi Hotep Netjerwi imef 
(Two Powerful Ones Have Risen And The Two Lords Are At Peace Within Him)

(Nebti Name)

nb.ti xa-sxm.wi nb.wi Htp im=f
Nebti
Khasekhemui Hotep-Netjerwi-imef
(The Two Powerful Ones Have Risen And The Two Lords Are At Peace Within Him)

nb.ti xa-sxm.wi nbw H.t=sn
N
ebti Khasekhemwi Nebu Khetsen
(The Two Powerful Ones Have Risen, Their Bodies Being Of Gold)

Abydos Table
(Nomen)
 

DADAy
Djadjay

Saqqara Table
(Nomen)

bby
Beby

Turin Canon
(Nomen)

bbty
Bebti

Detail of the limestone statue. Ashmolean Museum OxfordThe Turin Canon assigns to him a rule of 27 years, 2 months and 1 day. The ruler is regarded as re-unifier of the land disintegrated after Peribsen’ reign. He put down rebellions in Northern nomes and by marriage with North-Egyptian princess Nimaathapi he strengthened his power over the whole territory. Presumably he was father-in-law of Sanakht and Djoser, father of Initkaes and Hetephernebti. It is generally believed that after re-unifying he changed his Horus name to Khasekhemui (in a double number). At Hierakonpolis there were found two seated statues of the king with inscriptions recording his success over Lower Egypt. Burial place – tomb V in Umm el-Qaab necropolis at Abydos.
 

One of the pair of limestone seated statues from Hierakonpolis. Cairo Museum Serekh from pink granite door
One of the pair of limestone seated statues from Hierakonpolis. Cairo Museum. Serekh from pink granite door.

to I Dynasty

to III Dynasty

Copyright © 2000-2013 Dariusz Sitek, Czestochowa - Chicago - Ann Arbor